Treatment and Control
If bed bugs are found, the hotel management or homeowner should be encouraged to consult a licensed pest control professional. A written integrated pest management (IPM) plan should be requested from the pest control operator. This plan should detail the methods and insecticides to be used by the pest control operator and describe the efforts expected by the building manager. Generally, pesticides will need to be applied in conjunction with any non-chemical means of control; non-chemical options should be considered as management tools only. Good housekeeping practices and a reduction in possible harborages such as clutter, cracks, and crevices will discourage repeat infestations. As bed bugs are good at concealing their location, complete control is often difficult to achieve with the first treatment. This is especially so with heavy infestations and thus a post control treatment evaluation is always advisable. Below are some of the more common methods for dealing with bed bug infestations.
Physical Removal
Where infestations are heavy, treatment and removal of infested furniture and mattresses may be necessary. If bed bug numbers are small, they can be physically removed from mattresses and harborage sites by vacuuming. Because bed bugs can be distributed to other sites by equipment used to remove them, the vacuum should be bagged and used only for the purpose of removing bed bugs. The vacuum bag should be removed, sealed in a plastic bag, and properly disposed of in an outside dumpster. Vacuum every day or two until the bed bugs are gone. After the mattress is vacuumed or scrubbed and dried, it can be enclosed in a zippered mattress cover such as that used for house dust mites. Any bed bugs remaining on the mattress will be trapped inside the cover. Leave the cover in place for a year or so since bed bugs can live for a long time without a blood meal. After bed bugs are removed, cracks in plaster need to be repaired and loosened wallpaper glued down to eliminate bed bug harborage sites.
Temperature Extremes
Bed bugs are very sensitive to heat, and a combination of steam cleaning and as insecticide use has been found to be more effective for long-term control than insecticides alone (Meek, 2003). However, the effectiveness of steam cleaning
has been questioned, because the mattress can quickly absorb the heat and the bed bugs may not be harmed. Therefore, it is important to monitor the effectiveness of this or any treatment being used to control bed bugs. Steam treatments should start with the mattress and be applied to the seams, under labels and handles, and both inside and outside of the bed frame or base. Cushions of chairs and sofas should be treated next. Carpet edges can also be treated. It is important to be aware that steam cleaning can leave excess moisture, which can lead to problems with mold, mildew house dust mites, etc. Bed linens, towels, drapery, and other like items can be washed in hot soapy water and dried in a clothes dryer set to the highest setting that will not damage the items. It is often recommended that items be placed into black plastic bags and put in the sun so that the heat will kill any bed bugs on or in the item. This is not likely to be effective with anything but very small items. Bed bugs are also sensitive to extreme cold, so placing of small items in bags and freezing them for a minimum of 4 days may also provide control in items that can not easily be treated in any other way.
Chemical Control
Chemical control should be done by a licensed pest control professional using products labeled for bed bug control. Such applications are best done as “crack and service” treatments to gaps around baseboards and other similar places. Insecticidal dust formulations provide long residual in these locations. Pesticide applications to furniture, particularly mattresses, should be limited. Use products that are labeled for application to carpeting and furniture. The first application may not give 1 to 2 complete or immediate control, and additional treatments may be necessary in days. Space treatments (“fogging” and “bug bombs”) are ineffective against well-lt. hidden bed bugs and may cause bed bugs to scatter making eradication more difficult. As with any pesticide, always read the label and follow directions and safety
precautions.

After Treatment
To avoid spreading the bed bugs to other buildings, the room or rooms should not be used until they have been found to be bug-free. In tourist accommodations the pest control professional should conduct an in-depth physical inspection to determine treatment effectiveness. The local Environmental Health Specialist should recheck the room(s) after they have been treated and re-evaluated by the licensed pest control professional to ensure that steps were taken to eliminate and prevent the bed bug infestation. Glue boards placed close by harborage areas may help monitor bed bug activity by catching bed bugs as they move about at night. Many times the first application does not seem to give complete or immediate control. Additional treatments may be necessary in 1 to 2 days. Reinspections should occur within a week.